RESUME of Dr. Javaid Rahi ; Writer, Researcher, Translator, Editor                         __________                                              

April 10, 2019

RESUME

 

Dr. Javaid Rahi

Writer, Researcher, Translator, Editor

                        __________                                                                                                   

 

Name                            :         Dr.  Javaid Rahi

Residential Address      :         58/5A Trikuta Nagar Jammu/Chandak, Poonch

E-mail                           :         javaidrahi@gmail.com / Mob: 09419144139

Academic Qualification          :         MA in Urdu, Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) from

University of Jammu  in 2004.

Date of Birth                 :         01/09/1970 (Chandak- Poonch – J&K – India)

Languages Known        :        

Read/Write                   :         Urdu, Hindi, English, Gojri, Pahari,

Knowledge of : Arabic, Persian, Kashmiri.

Dogri,  Punjabi.

Research  work on : Ladakhi/Boti, Balti,

Shina/Dardi, Purgi

 

Experience in J&K Academy of Art, Culture & Languages :

  1. 25 years ofservice in J&K Academy of Art, Culture & Languages.
  2. Senior positions held: Head /DDO of Sub Offices – JKAACL, Chief Editor –(2004-19 till date ) , Editor-cum-Cultural Officer
  3. Important Assignments held in JKAACL
  4. Head of Gojri section of JKAACL -15 year
  5. Head Poonch /Rajouri Sub Offices of JKAACL
  6. Publicity / Public Relations Officer for 5 year.
  7. Incharge Officer of Culture in Central Office (2004-2006)
  8. Incharge Officer of 10 major Schemes run by JKAACL.
  9. Research Experience : 26 year
  10. Creative writing Experience : 30 year

 

State / National recognitions/Awards in literature/research from Govt.:-

  1. National Fellowship (J) of Ministry of Culture, Government of India, New Delhi awarded for Research in the field Performing Arts in the year 2000-2002.
  2. Best Book Award-by J&K Academy of Art, Culture & Languages in -2000
  3. Best Play Script Award- by J&K Academy of Art, Culture & Languages in -1998

 

Membership of Learned Societies & organizations

  1. Member of Advisory Committee for J&K constituted by the Indian Council for Cultural Relation, Union Ministry of External Affair, New Delhi.
  2. Member of Expert Committee for preparing Curriculum for Post Graduate Courses/ Studies in Gojri by University of Jammu in 2018.
  3. Convener for preparing Gojri Text Books up-to 8th class by J&K Board of School Education, under Deptt. of Education , J&K Govt.
  4. Member of Jury/Expert Committee for Granting Bhasha Sammaan  granted in Tribal Languages by Sahitya Akademi (National Academy for Letters).
  5. Member of Folk-Lore society of India, New Delhi
  6. Co-Chairman Gandhi Global Family, J&K
  7. Secretary, Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation, J&K (2000 to 2017)
  8. Programme consultant/ News Reader cum Translator (C) of Radio Kashmir Jammu/ Srinagar for 8 years / Anchor of DDK. Srinagar/Jammu.

 

Experience in Art & Culture Field

  1. Twenty-five year experience in organizing Festivals/ Conferences/ seminars /Concerts/ Film Festivals in and outside state.
  2. Supervised/organized/arranged more than 200 major cultural events/ extravaganzas such as Literary and Cultural Conferences, Seminars, Concerts,Theatre Festivals, Theatre and Play-write Workshops, National Theatre Festivals, Folk Festivals, Music Programmes, Inter State Cultural Exchange Programme, Children’s Activates, International , Visits of Cultural Troupes, All India Artists/ Sculptors Camps others held under the banner of JKAACL and other organizations.
  3. Vast Experience in Organizing State/ National/ International
  4. Lead J&K Cultural Troupes to different states of India to showcase J&K Culture/heritage.
  5. Experience of organizing Meelas/ Heritage Fairs to exhibit age-old heritage.

 

Experience in Literature /Research Field

  1. Total number of Books written/ compiled/ edited as Editor = 183 Books
  2. Total number of Books/issues of periodical Edited as Astt editor = 91 Books
  3. Translations /other Research Project Supervised =59 Books

 

Total  Publications/ Books Published till date :                            333 Books

 

Prestigious Literary Projects – Published

DICTIONARIES

  1. Compiled/edited first-ever Gojri Dictionary (Concise) –901 pages -Published by J&K Academy of Art, Culture and Languages,  in 2015
  2. Compiled first-ever Lok-Warsti Dictionary (Folk-Lore Dictionary) –(Volume 2) a Project by Ministry of Culture Govt of India , New Delhi , published in 2002 -2003
  3. Compiled first-ever Hindi- Gojri Dictionary Published by Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation J&K in 2002.
  4. Compiled and edited Lughat-e-Gojri (Dictionary of Classical Gojri) Published by J&K Academy of Art, Culture and Languages in 2014

 

ENCYCLOPEDIA

  1. Research: Written “Himailyai Gujjar Encyclopedia” (Encyclopedia of Himalayan Gujjars) a Project of Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India allotted under Cultural Heritage of Himalaya Scheme, published in 2004.

 

RESEARCH BOOKS : (Published by Author)  

  1. Lok-Virso – (Research )Awarded by JKAACL (1999)
  2. Jammu Kashmir ke Qabaila-aur-unki Zubanein ((Research /Urdu) –(2010)
  3. Gujjar Tribe of Jammu and Kashmir (Research English) (2015)
  4. Gujjar Shanakhat Ka Safar (History and Culture Urdu-2005)
  5. Gojri Lok Geet -2018

 

TRANSLATIONS (books): (Published by JKAACL)  

  1. 150 poems of Rabinderanath Tagore in Gojri (2014)
  2. Kalam-e- Shekh ul Alam (RA) in Gojri (2018)

 

BOOKS/ COMPILATION (Published by JKAACL during 2005 to 2018)   

  1. Kulyat e Rana Fazal Hussain-compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  2. Kulyat e Shams ud Din Mehjoor -compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  3. Gojri Look Kahani -300 Gojri Folk Tales ;-Compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  4. Kalyat-e- Israel Asar-(2 Volume) compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  5. Kulyat-e-Nazir Ahmad Nazir -compiled by Dr.Javaid Rahi,
  6. Kalam -e-Khudha Baksh Zar-compiled by Dr.Javaid Rahi,
  7. Kulyat-e-Qasim Shamim -compiled by Dr.Javaid Rahi,
  8. Kalam-e-Nizam: compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  9. Asrar-e-Kabiri by Hazrat Baba Ji Sahib -compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  10. Mafouzat-eNizamia by Hazrat Baba Ji Sahib -compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  11. Ghuman Ghair by Abrar Zaffar-compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  12. Sajri Saveel by Sarwar Rana -compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  13. Kuliyat e Hassan Din Hassan-compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  14. Kalam-e- Rashid Bhatti- -compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  15. Mahal- Rana Fazal Hussain -compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  16. Abjad- Rana Fazal Hussain -compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  17. Kuliyat – – Mukhlis Wajdani-compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  18. Nain Sumandar- Abdul Rashid -compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  19. Kalam e QasimSaqi – Shingran Ka Geet ;-compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  20. Umaoo Nain of Shahid Rafeeq Chowdhary” -compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  21. Kuliyat e Naseem Poonchi; -compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi,
  22. Gojri GOJRI SI HARFI -compiled by Dr. Javaid Rahi.

 

Books/ Periodicals edited – 57Books  : (Published by JKAACL)

  1. Maharo-Adab : Published during 2004-2018  ; 13 issues/books
  2. Urdu- Gujjar Aur Gojri: : Published during 2004-2018  ; 13 issues/books
  3. Paneeri (Lit. for Children) : Published during 2004-2018  ; 13 issues/books
  4. Masawdo         : Published during 2010-2018  ; 05 issues/books
  5. Sanjh –Book Series ; Published during 2010-2018 ; 05 issues/books

 

Qadawar – Book Series ; Published by JKAACL during  2010-2018

  1. Mian Fathey Mohd Darhalvi number
  2. Mian Israel Asar ; number
  3. Ch Mehar Din Qammar number
  4. Sabir Afaqi; number
  5. Sarwari Kassana (under print)

 

Gojri Ka Lal- Book Series ; Published by JKAACL during 2004 to 2016

  1. HazratMian Nizam-ud-Din (RA) ; number
  2. Nazir Ahmad Nazir number
  3. Ilam Din Banbasi number

 

English Research -Book Series ; Published by JKAACL during 2004 to 2016

  1. The Gujjars Vol 1 No. 1 (HISTORY NUMBER )Ed: Dr. Javaid Rahi
  2. The Gujjars Vol 2 No. 2 (LANGUAGE NUMBER )Ed: Dr. Javaid Rahi
  3. The Gujjars Vol 3 No. 3 Ed: Dr. Javaid Rahi
  4. The Gujjars Vol 4 No. 4 Ed: Dr. Javaid Rahi
  5. The Gujjars Vol 5 No. 5 Ed: Dr. Javaid Rahi
  6. The Gujjars Vol 6 No. 6 Ed: Dr. Javaid Rahi

 

Text Books  -Edited (8 Books) ; Published by J&K Board of School Education

  1. Paheli Gojri Kitab
  2. Duji Gojri Kitab
  3. Teji Gojri Kitab
  4. Chothi Gojri Kitab
  5. Panjmi Gojri Kitab
  6. Shingar –Chamein Gojri Kitab
  7. Shingar –Satimi Gojri Kitab
  8. Shingar – Athmein Gojri Kitab

 

Edited Books/ Periodicals(78 issues of Sheeraza Published by JKAACL)

  1. Bi-Monthly SheerazaGojri     : Six  issues 2004
  2. Bi-Monthly SheerazaGojri     : Six  issues 2005
  3. Bi-Monthly SheerazaGojri     : Six  issues 2006
  4. Bi-Monthly SheerazaGojri     : Six  issues 2007
  5. Bi-Monthly SheerazaGojri     : Six  issues 2008
  6. Bi-Monthly SheerazaGojri     : Six  issues 2009
  7. Bi-Monthly SheerazaGojri     : Six issues 2010
  8. Bi-Monthly SheerazaGojri     : Six  issues 2011
  9. Bi-Monthly SheerazaGojri     : Six  issues 2012
  10. Bi-Monthly SheerazaGojri     : Six  issues 2013
  11. Bi-Monthly SheerazaGojri     : Six  issues 2014
  12. Bi-Monthly SheerazaGojri     : Six  issues 2015
  13. Bi-Monthly SheerazaGojri     : Six  issues 2017

 

Edited Journals/ Periodicals: –  (91 BOOKS/ ISSUES )

(As Associate Editor; Published by JKAACL)

  1. Sheeraza Gojri 1994            3 issues.
  2. Sheeraza Gojri 1995            6 issues.
  3. Sheeraza Gojri 1996            6 issues.
  4. Sheeraza Gojri 1997            6 issues.
  5. Sheeraza Gojri 1998            6 issues.
  6. Sheeraza Gojri 1999            6 issues.
  7. Sheeraza Gojri 2000            6 issues.
  8. Sheeraza Gojri 2001            6 issues.
  9. Sheeraza Gojri 2002            6 issues.
  10. Sheeraza Gojri 2003           6 issues.
  11. Maharo-Adab (1994 to 2003) 9 issues.
  12. Shingran Ka Geet (1994 to 2003) 7 issues.
  13. Gojri Lok Geet (1994 to 2003) 7 issues.
  14. Gojri LoK Kahani (1994 to 2003) 6 issues.
  15. Gujjar Aur Gojri (1994 to 2003) 6 issues.

 

Translation Project – Supervision : Published by JKAACL during 2004-2018

My Experiment with truth by Autobiography of  Gandhi ji

  1. 101 poems of Tagore : Dr. Javaid Rahi
  2. Kalam e sheikh ul Alam (RA) : Dr. Javaid Rahi
  3. Greek Plays : UNANI DARMA ; Parvez Akhter
  4. Translation of Short stories of  Prem Chand
  5. Biography of APJ Abdul Kalam : Dr. Shah Nawaz
  6. Rubayat-e-Umar Khayam : Naseem Poonchi
  7. Shahan –e-Gujjars (History of Gujjars by Abdul Malik )
  8. Medini Qafilo ; Naseem Poonchi
  9. Translation of Hadess- Sucha Moti  in Gojri
  10. Mian Mohammad Baksh : Parvez Akhter
  11. Kashmir k Gujjar –R P Khatana
  12. Kinglier of Shakespeare : Mansha Khaki
  13. Selected books from classic and regional Languages.
  14. Tareikh Ibn e Khaldoon Volume 1 : by H D PARWAZ
  15. Tareikh Ibn e Khaldoon Volume 2 : by H D PARWAZ
  16. Tareikh Ibn-e- Khaldoon Volume 3 : by H D PARWAZ
  17. Tareikh Ibn e Khaldoon Volume 4 : by H D PARWAZ
  18. Tareikh Ibn e Khaldoon Volume 5 : by H D PARWAZ
  19. Alfarooq ; Volume 01 by H D PARWAZ
  20. Alfarooq ; Volume 02 by H D PARWAZ
  21. Gojri – Gulistan e Sadi : Ch Naseem Poonchi
  22. Gojri Translation of Bostan e Sadi: Anwar Hussain
  23. Masnvi Moulana Rumi- Vol 1 ; By Ch Naseem Poonchi
  24. Masnvi Moulana Rumi- Vol 2 ; By Ch Naseem Poonchi
  25. Masnvi Moulana Rumi- Vol 3 ; By Ch Naseem Poonchi
  26. Masnvi Moulana Rumi- Vol 4 ; By Ch Naseem Poonchi
  27. Masnvi Moulana Rumi- Vol 5 ; By Ch Naseem Poonchi
  28. Masnvi Moulana Rumi- Vol 6 ; By Ch Naseem Poonchi
  29. EikKhotakiAapBirti : by H D PARWAZ
  30. Rumi Ki Kahhani – Anwar Hussain
  31. Tareik Sukharwane Gujarat (SAANJH)
  32. Qisa –e- Chahar Dervaish : Anwar Hussain
  33. Prem Chand Ki ChonamKahaniyan, H D Parwaz
  34. Apno Dard Gojri Translation of Agha Hashir Kashmiri
  35. Manda Mitra Gojri Translation of Agha Hashir Kashmiri
  36. Choran Var Moor :Gojri Translation of Agha Hashir Kashmiri
  37. Karni Ko Phal; Gojri Translation of Agha Hashir Kashmiri
  38. Behwa ; Gojri Translation of Kirshan-Chander
  39. Krishan Chand ka ChonvaAfsana, Gojri Translation
  40. Hirs Ki Maar, :Gojri Translation of Agha Hashir Kashmiri
  41. Nelo Naag :Gojri Translation of Agha Hashir Kashmiri
  42. Gojri Translation of Discovery of India by Pt Nehru

 

Research Projects ; Supervision

  1. History of Gojri Literature; Published by JKAACL during 2006 -2011  Researcher  By Dr. Rafeeq Anjum/
    1. Prologue to Golden History,
    2. Ancient Gojri literature,
  • Modern Gojri literature,
  1. Modern Gojri Poetry,
  2. Gojri Ghazal (an anthology),
  3. Gojri Songs (geet),
  • Gojri short stories (an anthology),
  • Gojri Drama (an anthology),
  1. Biography of Gojri Writers)
  2. Abridged Golden History.

 

  1. Learning Courses in Gojri for non-native learners two volume
  2. Gojri Grammar
  3. Gujjar Tariekh-o-Saqafat :04 Volume
    1. Zia ul Biyan by Ab Ghani Shashi (a book on Gujjar History)
    2. Shahan e Gujjar by Abdul Malik Chouhan
    3. Gujjar Goonj–Ch. Mohammad ShriefBaqa, Abdul Rehman Gorsi & others
    4. Research articles by Rana Ali Hassan

 

Experience of Supervising  of 10 major annual  Schemes run by JKAACL 

  1. Best Play-Script Competition
  2. Best Book Awards
  3. Writers Camps
  4. All India Artists, Sculptors Camps
  5. All State Essay Competition
  6. Al State Film Competition
  7. Financial Assistance to NGOs
  8. All State Art Exhibition,
  9. Financial Assistance to writers who are in indigent circumstances
  10. All India Calligraphy Competition

 

Experience of Liaison/coordinationwith National Cultural Bodies:

  1. Zonal Cultural Centers of India
  2. ICCR, Ministry of EA, New Delhi
  3. Union Ministry of Culture , New Delhi
  4. Sahitya Akadmi, New Delhi
  5. Sangeet NatakAkademi, New Delhi
  6. Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi

 

T.V Prog. Serial                        

  1. 15 year Experience of Conducting  programme / interview son TV
  2. Written TV Serial Malli Gujari –serials for DD Kashir Channel  besides a
  3. number of Documentaries, etc.

 

Radio                     

  1. 10 Experience of Editing/Translating / Reading News
  2. Bulletin (Gojri) / Presenting programmes .From Radio Jammu/Srinagar/
  3. 20 year Experience as Drama/ Features writer :-

 

UGC

  1. Qualified state level eligibility test conducted by University Grants Commission for  the posts of  Professor in Degree in  Universities/ Colleges.

 

Folk-Lore Training          :

  1. Attended workshop-cum-training Programme for Preservation of Folk-lore organized by Central Institutes of Indian Languages, Mysore, Karnataka, Ministry of Human Resources Department , Govt. of India at Jammu in 1999 with the co-ordination with J&K Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, at Jammu.
  2. Attended a week- long workshop on “Collection of Tribal Folk-Lore” at Jammu in May 1999 organized by Ministry of HRD Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore in collaboration with Gurjar Desh Charitable  Trust, Gujjar colony, Jammu. 25 years of experience in collection and  preservation of tribal  folk lore.

 

Theatre Training :                    

  1. 21 Days theatre/ Acting workshop organized by J&K AACL at Baramulla, Kashmir in Oct 1987-88.
  2. 10 days Gojri Play-wright workshop organized by J&K AACL at Tagore Hall, Sringar 1989.
  3. 10 days Playwright workshop at Abhinav Theatre, Jammu in 1992 by JKAACL.

 

Linguistic Training :                                   

  1. Ministry of H.R.D Government of India 15 days workshop on Linguistics organized by Central Institute of Indian Languages Mysore at Jammu in the month of August 1997.
  2. 15 Days workshop for preparation of Gojri self-Learning course for non-native learner’s Organized by Central Institute of Indian Languages Mysore at G.D.C.T Jammu in 1998.
  3. 15 Days workshop on Gojri Script / learning course at Mysore Karnataka organized by Central Institute of Indian Language.
  4. 6 Days workshop on phonetics organized by J&K AACL & CIIL Mysore at Jammu in Dec, 2000.

 

Other Works :

  1. Working to bring Gojri- a tribal Language to international notice.
  2. Anchored 200 programmes for Satellite Channel-Gulistan News/ Take-1 to promote regional culture of state.
  3. Organized/ coordinated scores of Educational, Literary and Cultural conferences, seminars, workshops, debates, symposia, poetic competitions and other literary, educational and cultural programmes at National and State Level through JKAACL and other organizations
  4. Conceived, wrote and directed a TV Documentary films on JK Culture and Heritage.
  5. Anchored popular programmes like  Karwan by Doordarshan Kendras  Srinagar / Jammu
  6. Delivered extension lectures in different colleges/Universities/ Schools with regard to Culture/ tribal welfare / education.
  7. Established a YouTube Channel on my name -JAVAID RAHI-in 2009-  to promote regional art and culture. Presently 50,000 people across the world subscribed my Channel. The Channel receives -upto 50 K views every day.
  8. Presented research papers in Seminars/Symposia/Conferences/ workshops /prog organized by BGSB University, Jammu University,
  9. Participated in the National Seminar on Tribal Myths at Bangalore Organised by Sahitya Akademi , New Delhi  in March
  10. Attended National Seminar on Indian Music org. by Sangeet Natak Academy, New Delhi at Chandigarh November 2002.
  11. Participated in National Seminar at Kashmir, Organized by Deptt. of Political Science, University of Jammu in March 2004
  12. Attended /organized a number of State Level Gojri Cultural Conferences under the banner Tribal Research and Cultural Foundatin, Gujrjardesh Trust , Jammu and J&K Academy of Art, Culture and Languages.
  13. Participated in State Level Seminar on Ethno-Cultural Heritage of Gujjar Org. by Union Ministry of Culture , HRCF, Delhi and GDCT in May 1999.
  14. Participated in National Seminar on Urdu Literature org by Urdu Deptt. University of Jammu.
  15. Attended State Level Seminar on Urdu & Gojri Relationship at Jammu in 2001. Org. by Tribal Research & Cultural Foundation & Rasa Society Jammu.
  16. Organised twodat state Level Seminar on life and work of “HazratMian Nizam-ud-Din” (R.A) at Jammu in April 2001. Org. By Tribal Foundation Regd. Jammu.
  17. Attended National Seminar on Bio-Diversity organized by Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University Rajouri in 2018 as chief guest.
  18. Delivered Lecture on Tribes of J&K at University of Jammu at Centre for Jammu Kahmir and Ladakh in 2018.
  19. Attended a number of National /International Seminars / Conferences and other literary events.
  20. Delivered Lecture on Tribal Women of J&Kat University of Jammu at Department of Home Sciences in 2018

 

 

 

(Dr. Javaid Rahi)

58/5A Trikuta Nagar,

Jammu (J&K)

PIN:180012

Dated : 03/03/2019

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April 9, 2019

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Javaid Rahi : email address ; javaidrahi@gmail.com

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Gojri TEXT BOOKS 6th class

March 12, 2019

Gojri Text Book for 6th Class GOJRI TEXT BOOK -6th Class

Gujjars of Jammu and Kashmir; A story of five decades  struggle ; by  Dr. Javaid Rahi

March 7, 2019

A story of five decades  struggle of Gujjars                                                                                                               by  Dr. Javaid Rahi

After various recommendations by a number of commissions and panels constituted by the central and state government from time to time for amelioration of the lot of weaker sections of society in India, the Government of India had sanction a fund of Rs 13 Crore in  1975 for the development and upliftment of the Gujjars in Jammu and Kashmir. The announcement of this fund had come as a follow up to the Jammu and Kashmir visit of then Prime Minister, Mrs. Indira Gandhi when she was made aware of the plight of Gujjars. At that time the state had just come out of the political instability it had been passing through since 1953. There was no proper mechanism in place for the development and welfare of the weaker section of the society or for those people who had peculiar problems. Therefore, there was no institution in place to study are particular areas of demand and utilise the funds sanction by the central government. For this purpose, the government of the time constituted a board under the chairpersonship of the wife of then Chief Minister Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah –Begum Akbar Jahan. One of the dominant reasons for the nomination of Begum Abdullah to head the board was that she would always identity herself with the Gujjars. The legend goes like this that Begum Akbar Jahan was born to a Gujjar mother though her father was English. The board thus constituted was named as Jammu and Kashmir Gujjars and Bakerwals Development Advisory Board (currently headed by Gujjar leader Haji Buland Khan).

At the constitution of the board the government of time appears to have ignored the distinct identity of the Gujjars, their peculiar problems and socio-economic status. This become apparently clear from the composition of the board. Some non-Gujjar members like Mohammad Din Bandey and GM Mir Poonchi were also nominated on the board. This evoked a sharp criticism from the Gujjars as how non-Gujjars are expected to understand the needs and aspirations of the, Gujjars therefore, a demand came from several quarters for removal of these members from the board. This criticism was taken by a pinch of salt by the Pahari speaking leaders –a group to which Mohammad Din Bandey and GM Mir Poonchi belonged. (later,M.D. Bandey became vice chairman of the Pahari Advisory board in 1996 currently headed by a Rajouri based Rajput Shabir Ahmed Khan). Thus in back drop of this criticism the Pahari speaking leaders took an exception to the assertion of the Gujjars and they launched a silent campaign to keep Gujjars in their prevalent packing orders. This movement was later joined by Pahari speaking leaders of tall stature to remained senior ministers, legislators, parliamentarians and bureaucrats from time to time.

However, as far as the Gujjar & Bakerwal Advisory Board is concerned, the body abjectly failed to serve the cause in a spirit it was espoused to do. The amount of Rs 17 Crore sanction by the central government could have been sufficient at that time to establish a University. But the board, due to lack of planning and the spirit, doled the funds on creation of few hostels for the Gujjars and Bakarwals and shelled out rest of money on insignificant scholarships. It may not of be out of place to mention here that some of the Gujjar hostels, particularly in the one in Poonch, were set ablaze by some anti-Gujjar elements averse to the idea of Gujjars getting educational avenues. This underlines the plethora of servitude the Gujjars of Jammu and Kashmir have been passing through. In early 1980s the Gujjars and Bakerwals were declared as definite social caste thus entitling them to three per cent reservation in professional colleges. This, however, was strongly countered by the Pahari speaking leaders who putforth a dominant demand for setting up of Pahari board on the analogy of the Gujjar board and they also demanded reservation under the category of Other Backward Classes. Their pleas was based on the premise that the Pahari speaking people and Gujjars are drawn from a similar social background, which however, is debatable.

After a five decades of struggle by the Gujjars, the Government of India grated them the Scheduled Tribe status on April 19, 1991. Besides, Gujjars and Bakerwals the Scheduled Tribe status encompassed ten other tribes including Bot, Beda, Mon, Gara, Changpa, Purigpa, Balti, Dard/Sheen/Brokpa of Ladakh Region besides Gaddi, Sipi of Doda and Kathua districts of J&K.

This was milestone in the social amelioration of Gujjars in Jammu and Kashmir and with 10 per cent reservation (to 12 tribes) open up educational and service avenues for the Gujjars. But immediately after this development, the movement of Pahari speaking people got strengthened and managed to convince the then state administration headed by the Governor to create Development Board for the Pahari speaking people. They also launched an aggressive and concerted campaign for the reservation under Scheduled Tribe. Though the demand of reservation could not see through the light of the day immediately, but the Pahari advisory board was put in place by the state government in early 1990s.

In the post-1996 period when the popular government returned to Jammu and Kashmir under Dr Farooq Abdullah of National Conference. In 1996 assembly elections most of the Gujjars in the fray lost at the hustings except late Choudhary Mohammad Hussain (from Darhal in Rajouri district) and Mian Altaf Ahmed (from Kangan in Srinagar district). However, this time eight members from the Pahari speaking group returned to the legislative assembly, four were nominated to the legislative council and one got a nomination for the Rajya Sabha. Three of the legislators got senior level cabinet berth in the National Conference government. On the contrary during this period none of the Gujjars legislators was in Dr Abdullah’s cabinet (Mian Altaf remained a Minister of State for first three years before he was elevated to the cabinet rank while Choudhary Mohammad Hussain was made a Minister of State when the government was at it the fag end of its term). This strong group of the Pahari legislators prevailed upon the incumbent regime and got the OBC status approved by the cabinet. It is pertinent to mention here that the OBC status is one of the pre-requisites for any group to get entitled for inclusion in the Scheduled Tribe status. Before this could become a reality the cabinet decision was sent to the Law department for ratification and opinion. The Law department raised certain questions on the issue. One the questions raised by the Law department, before the resolution could be sent to the Government was India, was that the definition of the Pahari speaking people is not clear. The department also remarked that the social structure of Paharis is diverse and there is no immediate reason as why they should be included in the OBC category. In the meanwhile, the state went for the assembly elections and the process could not be taken forward. But before that the proposal had been sent to the Government of India. It is learnt that the Registrar General of India returned the proposal to Jammu and Kashmir with objections that the RNI’s office is not convinced with the definition of the Paharis as put by the Jammu and Kashmir government and asked the government to reconsider the case. This put a halt to the ST and OBC status files of the Pahari speaking people pending before the Government of India.

 

 
While projecting their demand for the grant of reservation under the constitutional provisions of the Scheduled Tribe, the Pahari speaking people are basing their plea on the main premise that they come from backward which is akin to that of Gujjars. They say that their social structure, background and problems are as peculiar as those of the Gujjars. This is however, far from reality. A little peep into the historical background throws enough light on the social plight of the Gujjars and reveals that Gujjars have been an oppressed lot and continue to be so. That Paharis have been rulers and the Gujjars the rules. Though the political structure and system of administration has changed over the years but the basic realities and social structure continues to be same even in the post-1947 modern democratic political set up.

 

According to the historical evidences, as clearly elaborated in Harshcharitra, Gujjars came to India during 5th century AD alongwith certain other tribes. From 5th to 11th centuries they ruled Western to the Northern parts of India and particularly rules the kingdom of Greater Gujarat with their name. However, between 11th and 13th centuries some of the regions due to their internal internecine and other reasons like drought started migrated to the upper reaches of the Himalayan belt. During this period there are evidences of Gujjars converting to Islam in the course of various battles with Muslim rulers. The territory, which is latter, was to be known was Jammu and Kashmir was under the rule of Muslims. The Gujjars settled down at several places in Jammu and Kashmir and the rulers of the times considered them threat for their combatant and aggressive nature. Though the polity of the state slowly transferred from Muslims to Sikhs and then Hindu Rajputs but Gujjars were always considered as threat to the ruling clans. Therefore, to ward of this threat, the rulers of the times through a well thought out phenomenon settled the harsh groups among the communities around the areas inhabited by the Gujjars. The Gujjars were mostly in the hilly and tough terrains while the communities mobilised by the rulers to keep a watch on the Gujjars were settled in the fertile land areas adjoining or around the Gujjar inhabitations. Thus a phenomenon took shape in which the Gujjars were put under direct oppression of the different affluent classes particularly the Muslim classes of  Rathis, Maldayals, Thakyals,Thakurs, Turks, Pashtoons, Mirs, Mirzas, Maliks, Dullis, Khans , Sudans, Sayeeds and some groups of Hindus and Sikhs forming the affluent class of the society. Almost all local forms of economy and political structure were directly controlled by these sections while Gujjars were subjected to a second fiddle.

The agricultural lands and the avenues for trade and business were largely owned, possessed and controlled by them with a little scope for the Gujjars. A look at the contemporary structure of atleast four districts in Jammu and Kashmir viz: Rajouri, Poonch, Baramulla and Kupwara reveals that the agricultural lands and avenues of business are still largely controlled by these people and the Gujjars still continue to play a second fiddle to them. In the post-1947 liberal, democratic political structure when the government and administration at the state and central level started looking at the oppressed plight of the Gujjars all those groups who ruled and oppressed the Gujjars for centuries together grouped up and assumed a compulsive homogenous identity to Paharis –the Pahari speaking people. The present discussion is, however, left to be open ended for the sociologists, anthropologists and other social scientists and policy makers to study and conclude whether Gujjars need more avenues to come at par with other communities or the “Pahari speaking people” need to be brought in equal parlance with the Gujjars.

 

 

The writer is the Secretary of Tribal Research & Cultural Foundation.e mail javaidrahi@yahoo.co.in

Adress : Javed Rahi-81/9 Trikuta Nagar Jammu Ph. 0191-2475817

 

 

GUJJARS OF RAJASTHAN  &  ST STATUS :by  Dr. Javaid Rahi

March 7, 2019

GUJJARS OF RAJASTHAN  &  ST STATUS :by  Dr. Javaid Rahi

The struggle of Gujjars of Rajasthan for ST status is going on for the last several decades and Gujjars have adopted and availed every possible peaceful means to put forth their genuine demands before the appropriate quarters. But it was being sabotaged under one pretext or the other. Observing this hopeless state of affairs, the Gujjars intensified their struggle during the last 2 years. In the previous year when Gujjars announced agitation for their genuine constitutional  right that was responded with bullets by the State of Rajasthan and 26 innocent Gujjars were killed. Despite this the Gujjars of Rajasthan on the assurance  on State government suspended their agitation and gave the State ample time to settle their rightful issues which the government was bound to settle within a given time. Gujjars waited for one year but the Govt . seemed to be in no mood to have any logical conclusion to the dialogue process and they try to grab the issue by inciting certain elements and creating misunderstanding among various communities viz  a viz the ST status of Gujjars. Seeing this hopeless status of affairs, the Gujjars this year also came down to streets to agitate their genuine issues which is lingering on for the past 2 decades. This time too the frustrated state of Rajasthan came heavily on peaceful agitators, showered bullets on them resulting in 46 deaths, thousands injured and the movement saw a new turn and it spread in the entire northern and western region of India including Madhaya Pardesh, Utter Pardesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Delhi, Haryan, Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. But this could not deter the Gujjars of Rajasthan to come on backfoot rather they have positioned themselves firmly on railway tracks and highways with the single aim and programme “Do or Die”. The entire govt missionary used against Gujjars have failed to send Gujjars back to their villages. Gujjars have been demonstration with the bullet-ridden bodies of their nears and dear ones. Now the agitation of Gujjars seems to be on a logical conclusion.

 

Let us examine whether the ST demands of Gujjars of Rajasthan is a genuine one and is it falling within the criteria of ST status as provided by Schedule Tribes Act. We are recording the following main points which Gujjars have submitted in support of their demand before Chopra Committee framed by Vasundra Rajya Scindia govt in june 2007

 

Gujjars Claim for “Tribal  Identity”

 

Historical evidence

In Indian subcontinent the Gujjars are considered an important and historical tribe. This tribe has ruled over many princely states in northern India for hundred of years and left their imprints in the Himalayan ranges and inscribed them in such a way that they could not be destroyed even after thousand of years. The legacy of Gujjars is as old as their identity.

When their rules ended many kings in India had enlisted Gujjars as “Criminal Tribes”, so that they can snatch power from them to prevent them from being autonomous. Different kings used to keep an eye over Gujjars who were there in their army.
To prove that the Gujjars of Rajasthan are a tribe, the research works of various anthropologist and Historian are enough as an evidence,  includes the work of  Russell and Hiralal, James Tod, William Crooke, and William Dalrymple; Confirmation is  also made in various references in  Imperial Gazetteer of India (and the Rajputana Gazetteer Census of 1931 is to also quoted as an eviodence and the book authored by the Census Commissioner of this Census – titled: Caste in India — has also been referred in support of Gujjars claim as a Primitive Tribe . In these books the words “tribe” not “caste” is used for identification of GUJJARS in the state.

History tells us that tribal Gujjar kings have ruled from Gujarat, Jodhpur, and Kathiawad to Baliya 641 century A.D. and during this time it was known as Gujjar Desh. Chawada and Solanki Gujjars have ruled over Deccan Gujarat from 610 A.D -942 A.D, while Gujjars ruled over here from 700 A.D-1573A.D.

Rajputana Gazetteer  published in 1879  called Gujjars as  “cultivating Tribe” “As sole inhabitants of the Dang”, they live by “keeping” animals more than by agriculture. They live in “semi-barbarous state” (p.163). In the 1891 Census, all forest tribes were categorized as “agricultural and pastoral castes” – thus using tribe and caste as synonyms. Census of India 1901 described them as “animists”; Imperial Gazetteer of India (1904), Volume I, used the word “tribe” for them. Gait (1911) called them “tribal animists” and Hutton (1931 Census) described them as “herdsmen”. Dalrymple’s book The Last Mughal  made a reference to the Gujjars in relation to 1857 Mutiny that occurred in Meerut (U.P.) and called them as “Hindu herders and pastoralists, who “for centuries had roamed with their cattle and horses throughout North-West India, and especially in Rajasthan”.

Historians also make references to the Pratihar kingdoms that were ruled by the Gurjars during the eighth century A.D. These kingdoms were disintegrated by the attacks of Mehmood Ghaznabi in the eleventh Century.Gujjars , traced their links with Lord Ram of the Treta Yug, by mentioning that they were the progeny of Ram’s two sons – Luv and Kush, and the two endogamous moieties of Laur and Khari among them relate to these heroes respectively.

 

Criteria as lay down by Government of India for ST Status and Gujjars of Rajasthan

 

As per the criteria of the  Government of India any group claiming a tribal status ought to have the following five criteria:

  1. Primitive Traits
  2. Distinctive Culture
  3. Geographical Isolation
  4. Shyness of Contact
  5. Backwardness

 

 

  1. Primitive traits
    1. Maximum Gujjars of Rajasthan are living in Forests/ far-flung areas of deserts.
    2. Gujjars of Rajasthan are generally get their diseases as well as diseases of their animals treated through village experts and priests who use traditional and indigenous medicine and also through propitiation of local deities and magic and witchcraft.
    3. During famines Gujjars pray the gods to atone their wrath. Gujjars also make animal sacrifices to please the gods.
    4. Gujjars use family muscle power to settle our disputes between families.
    5. Most of the disputes are settled by our Panchayat, and make little use of the courts and judicial system.
    6. Gujjars men and women tattoo their bodies with motifs of trees and animals.
  2. Distinctive Culture
    1. The gods of Gujjars of Rajasthan are different from the Hindus. Gujjars worship the God Dev Narain.
    2. Unlike Hindus,the Gujjars observe “Shraddha” – yearly homage to the dead.
    3. In different parts of the State Gujjars have different Kabilas (groups or hordes), and they worship different gods.
    4. The economy of Gujjars is pastoral, forest-based, and agriculture for subsistence.
    5. The Gujjars houses are built with material obtained from the forest and local resources.
    6. The Gujjars agricultural tools are also primitive and made out of the forest products.
    7. Irrigation from the wells is done through leather buckets drawn by the bulls. Gujjar villages do not have water pumps or tapes.
    8. Gujjars have a distinct language, called Gojri, have thier own folk songs (like Rasiya and Kanahiya) and folk dances. The musical instruments are also different.
    9. Gujjars have a distinct religious history.
    10. The culture of Gujjars is pastoral and is reflected in our dress pattern, house type, shoes, and household utensils, most of which are made from the local material obtained from the forests where we reside.

 

 

  1. Geographical Isolation
  1. The Gujjar habitations are located on hill slopes, dense forests, barren lands, or on plateaus.
  2. Gujjars people rarely visit urban centres because of distance and lack of connectivity
  3. Gujjars Women are not at all exposed to urban life.

 

 

  1.               Shyness of Contact

a.The Gujjar people do not interact with outsiders.

  1. Gujjar women are very shy and keep their faces veiled

 

 

  1. Backwardness : Social
  2. Gujjars are endogamous; do not marry outside.
  3. Gujjars are required to give a death feast.
  4. People of other castes mostly do not have commensal relationship.
  5. Gujjars houses are located at a distance from other castes.
  6. Gujjars have the practice of junior levirate and also of Nata whereby a widow begins living with another person – for which the person keeping her as a wife has to pay a sum to the family of her parents which is called Even married women elope with another person. In that case the matter is referred to the community Panchayat which decides the Jhagda money (dispute settlement) to be paid by the eloper to the former husband of the woman. This may at times take  a violent turn.
  7. There is prevalence of Child marriage.
  8. Gujjars practice Polyandry.
  9. Gujjars have the practice of Bride Price
  10. Gujjars have very limited political representation as is evidenced by membership in the State Legislature, or national Parliament.

 

 

        Backwardness : Economic

  1. Gujjars economy is based on cattle breeding and on subsistence agriculture. We are marginal farmers with very limited per capita landholding; and even the land owned is mostly barren and unirrigated.
  2. Many are landless Nomads labourers working on farms, or on stone mines.
  3. Gujjars transactions are mostly non-monetary; barter is more common
  4. Gujjar villages are not linked with roads, we do not have electricity or any other modern amenities
  5. There is no government help in providing drinking water
  6. Gujjars have do not have educational facilities in the villages
  7. There are very few persons in government jobs. In Rajasthan there is no IAS or IPS officer from this community. Even in the State Administrative service, there is very poor representation of the members of the community. In the universities of Rajasthan State only 7 Gujars are in the teaching faculty (5 in General and two in Agricultural universities). No Gurjar has ever been appointed a member of the Rajasthan Public Service Commission. Also no Gurjar has been appointed as Vice Chancellor. Of the 32 judges in Rajasthan High Court, none is from this community. In one submission, following statistics about Gujars in various government jobs in Rajasthan was furnished:
    • IAS nil
    • IPS                 nil
    • RAS 5
    • RPS 2
    • Gazetted Officers 14
    • University Teachers 6
    • College Lecturers 10
    • Doctors 30
    • Engineers 20
    • Other services 2000
  8. There are hardly any Gujars in Trade or Business.
  9. In Karauli and Sawai Madhopur districts 40.18% and 37.47% families of the Gujars are classified as BPL families.

 

 

Population of Gujjars of Rajasthan

 

The Gujjar community in Rajasthan State constitutes 7-8 per cent of Rajasthan’s population, numbering somewhere between 60 to 65 Lakhs. As evidence, they said the voter lists have as many as 27, 68, 000. Considering that an average family of 5 would have at least 2 voters, this figure was multiplied by 2.4 to arrive at the figure of around 65 Lakhs.

Like the Meenas, the Gurjars are also non-vegetarian, and they drink alcohol. In East and South-Eastern part of Rajasthan, the life style of the Meenas and of the Gurjars is almost identical and yet one group enjoys the privileges of a ST while the other is denied.  The Meenas have nearly 60 per cent of the total land.

 

The contention and arguments put forth by Gujjars before Chopra Committee were in turn submitted to Rajasthan govt for examining and recording their recommendations, but the Rajasthan govt simply forwarded the same to the central govt without recording its recommendations as are mandatory for the process. The contention as put forth by Gujjars to Chopra Committee, fulfilled all the requirements and formalities to declare them Scheduled Tribe as that of Gujjars in HP and J&K, but the negative policy of Rajasthan govt is lingering the process and if this state of affairs continues then it seems the Gujjars may come out with a much bigger and uncontrollable agitation which may not be in the interest of Rajasthan govt or the nation as whole.

 

Photo Caption: Author Dr. Javaid Rahi sitting with Colonel Karrori Singh Bainsala the Gujjar Leader leading the agitation in Rajasthan. 

 

 

Traditional Sports of Gujjar Tribe; by Dr. Javaid Rahi

March 7, 2019

Traditional Sports of Gujjar Tribe

By: Javaid Rahi

Sports and Games have been going along with the human society since when the life come into existence. This is a natural way of mans physical and mental development besides a cultural identity. Even in today’s world deferent nations are known for different sports and games.

The Gujjars being a brave and hardworking society, their sports also denotes their bravery and love of nature .Almost all the games are outdoor ones and require a good muscle Power and sense of struggle. Many of their sports have like with annual Tribal folk-festivals, marriages or certain occasions. Here we shall have a brief description of a few ones :-

1) BUGDER ( Stone /weight lifting ) This is a show of physical might in youngman. Many of Gujjar youth do this type of traditional stone and weight lifting as a hobby. The process is prepared in a cubic or semi cubic shape with a handle carved from within the stone. The mightful young men lift the Bugder direct to their shoulders and then try to hold it above head on their arms. This sport is especially held during marriage or on the Child birth ceremony. When marriage party reaches the house they are stopped at a little distance from the house of bride where a stone is kept for lifting. The selected youth from the host side also attempt it and lifting the stone by any of the sides or both is deemed to be a matter of pride.

2) Beeni Panjo :- (Arm holding) This is a very common pastime of among Gujjars .Two young men complete this game. In this game one them strongly holds the wrist of other while the latter tries to set his arm free. Thus the might of both of them is established. The pastime is quite popular in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pardesh and performed during marriages and Festivals of Gujjar Tribe.

 

3) CHHING –(Wrestling) :- It is most popular sports of Gujjar community. In this the wrestler is kept in high esteem. Those found of wrestling among Gujjars conducted big Functions of CHHING ( Wrestling ) with in period of one or two month .The festival of Besakhi and Sagrand is much famous for this sport in Gujjars. Each of the wrestler tries his best to knock the opponent down to ground on his back while the other while the other tries to end keep his back away from ground because launching of a wrestler’s back with ground means defeat. At this moment the cheers and hooting of the supporters is worth seeing.

4)CHHITO :- This is mainly a girls game. It is played by marking a rectangle comprising of six small rectangles. The players have to occupy each of the small rectangles by drifting and earthen dise with only one foot on the ground. The dise must not stop on the on any line nor the other foot should touch the ground unless allowed by rules , The game requires much presence and physical fitness.

5) PANJHGEET :- This is an indoor game compassing of five stones marbles. The marble picked just with the time another among them thrown up returned down.It need quick mind and Game skill. The Girls mainly play the game as it played by sitting at home.

Khinnu (The Ball). This is the first sport of Tribal Children. The moment the baby recognises environment almost the first toy he is given is ball or doll. The former later on serves as a sport object for so many games. In poor families the mothers prepare balls of cloth pieces for their childern to play with.

Horse Race :- The Gujjars keep horses not only for transport purpose but also for trdational sports like Horse Race etc. For this purpose horses of spiecial quilities are purchased and races are conducted on different occasion like seasonal fesitivals marriages etc.

Animal Fights :- It is not only the men who fight each other in the shape of wrestlers, kabaddi Players etc. but the fight and competitions among animals are also worth mention. These include fighting of He-buffallows, Bulloxes, Rams and even cock fights. On the day of He-buffallow fight the parties come in large numbers with their Animals wel-fed and wel decorated. Each party would wish their animals could win. The He buffallows are put to fight much carefully lest either of the animals should be harmed. The Animals are seprated by tying ropes in their legs and each pulled backward by a number of youths.The occasion is some times marred with hot temporaments and the same may lead to a baton-charge on a few occasions. Anyway this is an enjoyable occasion. Similarlly the fight of Oxens He-Goats Rams and Cocks is enjoed by Gujjars- although these are averse to putting the Animals to trouble.

 

 

 

Inclusion of Gojri Language in the Eighth Schedule of Indian Constitution; by Dr. Javaid Rahi 

March 7, 2019

Inclusion of Gojri Language in the Eighth Schedule of Indian Constitution by Dr. Javaid Rahi 

 

Gojri one of the oldest and significant languages of the South Asian Sub Continent is a strong case for inclusion into eighth schedule of the constitution of India based on its significance, merit and vivacity.

According to a current analysis the Gojri language is the first language of 20 million people in South Asia and nearly eight million people in India, majority of them in Jammu and Kashmir.

The language which could be easily understood and spoken by the people belonging to the other linguistic groups has not been given due recognition for unspecified reasons. One of the major reasons for the neglect of Gojri could be traced in the lack of emancipation among this particular linguistic group and lack of activation. Several pleas by the groups and individuals espousing the cause have failed to convince the political leadership for inclusion of Gojri into the eighth schedule of the constitution of India thus giving the language the recognition it deserves since very long.

The Government of Jammu and Kashmir has already recognised Gojri by including it in the sixth schedule of the constitution. But due to some reasons the government has not been seen taking up the matter with the Government of India for its inclusion eighth Schedule of the constitution of India.

GUJJARS-THE SPEAKERS OF GOJRI LANGUAGE

The Gujjars appeared on horizon of India in fifth century A.D .History reveals that they have been a brave Tribe of Central Asia .The colourful Culture that spread from Gurjistan (Georgia) to Gujarat in India is still alive despite receiving so many jolts at the hands of time.

The Early History of India says that the Gujjars were early immigrants to t he Indian Sub-continent. Possibly “allied in blood” to the Huns. The Huns were divided into two major groups, White Huns and the Red Hunas. The later invaded Europe while the White Huns went down in to the Oxus Valley and attacked the Kishan Kingdom of Kabul and then poured into India.

The first reference to a separate Gujjar Kingdom is around fifth century AD. There is mention of a Gujjar Kingdom in Rajasthan with Bhilmal as the Capital.

In his book “Geography of Jammu & Kashmir State” Researcher says that before their arrival in the sub-continent they were the inhabitants of Georgia (Gurjia) a territory situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Soviet Union. They left that area and migrated through central Asia, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan, crossed the Khyber Pass and entered the Sub-continent of India. In the Sub-continent, making a southward march through Baluchistan,- they reached Gujrat,

The name ‘Gujarat’ is said to have been derived from the Prakrit Gujjar Ratta or Gujjar Rashtra – the land of Gujjars – a tribe that entered India with the Huns in ancient time and wandering through Punjab and Rajasthan, settled in western India.
Most probably in the 5th and 6th century A.D. While in Gujrat they were plagued by a series of serious droughts so they moved out of the plains area and entered the green pastures of the Siwaliks and the Himalayas. Having their place of origin as Georgia and moving towards the Sub-continent of India they named several settlements after their name, e.g. Gujar (Central Asia), Juzrs (Gurjara), Gujrabad, Gujru, Gujristan, Gujrabas, Gujdar-Kotta, Gujar-Garh, Gujarkhan, Gujranwala in Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenia, Pakistan and India. Cunningham (1970) is, however, of the opinion that the Gujjars are the descendents of Kusham and Yachi Tribes which are considered to be the tribes of Eastern Tartars (U.S.S.R.).

At present the Gujjars are Found in Following States :-

 

State Aprx. Population Language

Jammu & Kashmir 26 lack Gojri

Himachal Pardesh 4Lack Gojri

Haryana 22 lack Gojri/Haryanvi

Punjab 10 lack Gojri/Punjabi

Rajhisthan 17 Lack Gojri/Rajisthani

Uttaranchal 7 lack Gojri/ local Dailect

Utter Paredsh 13 Lack Gojri/Urdu

Gujrat 8 lack Gurjari

Pakistan occupied Kashmir 15 Lack Gojri

Punjab Province of Pakistan 35 lack Gojri/Pujabi

Sindh Province of Pakistan 3 Lack Gojri/Sindhi

Sarhad = = 22 lack Gojri/Sraieki

Balochistan ==== = 28 lack Gojri/Pashto/Balochi

Afghanistan 1838,691

 

The Gujjars became nomads in the 11th century, after the Mogul invasion of their area. Many also became Muslims (sometimes forced to convert). But today their nomadic lifestyle, illiteracy, and general lack of development puts them out of the mainstream of the powerful Muslim society in their area. In India, they are looked down upon by those who consider themselves of a higher caste (social class).

OTHER TRIBE/COMMUNITIES SPEAK GOGJRI

Muslim Jats of Jammu and Kashmir

Backward classes (Muslims) of Poonch/Rajouri/Udhampur/Doda/Baramulla/Kupwara

Turk Tribe of Kashmir

Mir and Qurieshi Tribe of Kashmir

Pakhtoons

Hazarwi Tribes

Peer Panchal Tribes

Bakerwals

Ajhries

OTHER TRIBE/COMMUNITIES USE GOJRI AS SECOND LANGUAGE

Paharis (Musilms)

Dogri Speaking People of Udhampur

Kasmiri Speaking people of Poonch, Rajouri, Doda, Baramulla, and Kupwara

Punjabis of POONCH & RAJOURI

Hindko Speaking

Gaddi speaking People

BACKGROUND

Gojri is one of the ancient languages of India. In well documented pieces of works the historians have traced the origin and practice of Gojri language since BC era. There are several mentions of this language in ancient Religious Books written in and around 1st century B.C.

Noted Saint Scholar and Hindi Persian Poet Hazrat Amir Khusroo formally made mention Gojri language in the list of Eighteen Indian Languages of his time. Researchers and historians are of considered opinion that Gojri language is the mother of Rajasthani, Gujarati, Urdu and Haryanvi Languages.

Gojri –an offshoot of Indo- Aryan Group of languages, was common language in North west belt of India from 7th to 15th centenary AD during the dawn of Sanskrit and Persian poetry and prose in Indian sub-continent several noted poets and Sufi saints used Gojri to spread their message. According to well researched document the poets and saints who used this language to spread their message were: Saint Noor-ud- Din; Sat Guru (1094 AD); Amir Shah Miran Ji (1494 AD); Shah Bhajan (1397-1508 AD); Qazi Mehmood Daryaee (1419-1545 AD); Ali Jevan Gham Dhani (1565 AD); Buhan –ud-Din Janam (1572 AD); Khub Mahammad Chashti (1539-1614 AD); Adil Shah Sani Jagat Guru (1411 AD); Qutab Shah (1556-1611 AD); Mulana Afzal Pani Patti (1625 AD); Amin Gujrati (1657 AD) Miran Ji Hashmi (1688 AD) et al. These poets and saints known all over India for their unique socio-cultural fraternity used Gojri in their umpteen verses to communicate and spread the message of brotherhood, peace and secularism.

As it continues to be a significant language in the sub continent, the Gojri has remained in prolific practice for more than 10 centuries and has richly contributed to literary traditions and treasure in the forms of Masanavies, Prose, Folk-Lore and Religious Literature.

CURRENT STATUS

The Gojri is being widely spoken and is in fact mother tongue of over 20 Million people residing in various parts of India particularly in Jammu and Kashmir,( Pakistan occupied Kashmir), Himachal Pardesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pardesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujrat and Uttaranchal. Gujjars, Bakerwal, Jats and Hazarwi Tribe whose mother tongue is Gojri have always fought for the cause of their motherland and have paid a pivotal role during India’s Independence movement. They have always played commendable and very active roles in various wings of Armed Forces to defend the unity and integrity of India.

RESEARCH, LITERATURE AND COMMUNICATION

  • Internationally noted Linguistic Researcher Sir G. A. Gareirson while analysing various languages of India has written a full volume on Gojri Language. In his work Sir has accepted and outlined universal influence of Gojri and its impact on other Indian Languages.
  • The Oxford University U.K had compiled (By T. Graham Bialy ) first ever Grammar of Gojri Language in 1905.
  • The Linguistic Survey of India has surveyed the various aspect of Gojri Language and its influence on other languages. In its research project, the Linguistic Survey of India has described Gojri as one of the main languages Instrumental in developing and flourishing other Languages.
  • The Central Institute of Indian Language Mysoor Karnatika under Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India has published various books on Linguistic aspect of Gojri languages.

 

  • The All India Radio and Doordarshan Kendra are already running various Gojri programs. The Radio Kashmir Jammu , Srinagar, Poonch in India and Seven Radio Stations of Pakistan and PTV have since long been airing Gojri Programmes /News bulletins which has a wide acceptability across the state of Jammu and Kashmir. This demonstrates the importance of Gojri language.
  • During past hundred of years a large number of Gojri Books have been published in various on various subjects which include Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Grammar, Poetry. Prose, Flora and Fauna, Folk lore, Art and Architecture, Agriculture, Sociology and Research documents.

 

  • The National Academy of Letters, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi has also recognised Gojri as one of the major Indian Languages for its prestigious National Award, Bhasha Samman and other programs.
  • The Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Arts, Culture and Languages has a well established a Gojri Department in its Central Office which is in operation for last 30 years. Hundreds of books, dictionaries and other research works have been performed and published by the Academy for the development of Gojri Language.
  • Jammu and Kashmir State board of School Education made a Primer in Gojri for Teaching Gojri in Schools.
  • The University of Jammu and University of Kashmir have awarded several Doctorate Degrees on completing research projects on Gojri.
  • Same is the case in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir where Gojri Academy has been established and Post Graduate Studies Department has been set up in various Universities, Regional Research Centers.

ORGANISATIONS WORKING FOR GOJRI ( NON GOVT. SECTOR)

  • Gujjar Desh Charitable Trust Jammu
  • Tribal Research & Cultural Foundation Poonch
  • Anjmun Gujjran Sri nagar
  • Jammu and Kashmir Anjuman Taraqi Gojri Adab Rajouri (J&K)
  • Bhartya Gujjar Pareshad Uatter Pardesh.
  • Anjuman Gojri Zuban-o-Adab Tral Kashmir
  • Organisation of Himalyan Gujjars Poonch
  • Adbi Sangat Waghat Kashmir
  • Adbi Majlis Gojri Jammu
  • Sarwari Memorial Gojri Society Jammu
  • Gojri Dramatic Club Jammu
  • Gujjar Writers Association Uri Baramulla.
  • Gojri Anjmun Badgam
  • Gujjar Manch Kathua
  • Bazm-i-Adab Kalakote Rajouri
  • Gojri Development Center Karnah Kupwara.

A Comparative Look on BODO Language included in 8th Schedule with Dogri

BODO

Populatio 600,000 in India (1997 IMA). Population total both countries 601,000.
Region Assam, South Bank; West Bengal; Manipur, Tengnoupal District. Also spoken in Nepal.
Alternate names BORO, BODI, BARA, BORONI, MECHI, MECHE, MECH, MECI, KACHARI
Dialects CHOTE, MECH.
Classificat-ion Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo.
  Related to Dimasa, Tripuri, Lalunga. Vigorous Bodo language and culture. Most Mech in Assam speak Assamese as mother tongue (R. Breton 1997:24). 3 Scheduled Tribes: Mech, Boro-Kachari, Plains Kachari. Literacy rate in second language: 40% Assamese. Agriculturalists. Spiritist, traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

Also spoken in: Nepal

  Language name BODO
Population 938 in Nepal (1961 census).
Alternate names BORO, BODI, BARA, BORONI, MECHE, MECHI, MECI, MECH, MACHE
   
   

Since the Government of India has included Dogri, Maithali, Santhali and Bodo Languages in the official languages list, it is high time to consider Gojri to be included in the official languages list so as to give its due and recognised its universal application over other languages which has otherwise been given the status long before.

This is the aspiration of millions of people who wants that the due credit shall be given to this ancient languages which serves our motherland for centuries together. Including Gojri in the 8th Schedule of Indian Constitution, will not only uplift the down trodden Gojri speaking people but will also open the doors for new horizons which will serve our motherland in a very positive manner.

Submitted

SECRETARY                                                                                        Editor-cum-Cultural Officer Gojri

 

Book review ; Javaid Rahi’s Dictionary of Gujjar Folklore           ; by R.K.Bharati

March 7, 2019

Book review

Dictionary of Gujjar Folklore

                                                             By R.K.Bharati

 

Name of the book………………Folk-Lore Dictionary of Gujjar Tribe I & II

(Gujjar Qaibila ki Lok Virasati Dictionary)

Language…………………………Gojri in Persian script

Author……………………………. Javed Rahi

Publisher…………………………. JK Offset Printers, New Delhi (2003)

Pages……………………………… Volume I= 210 and Vol. II=202

Price ……………………………… Rs. 300 each

 

Javed Rahi, a prolific Gojri writer, has brought out two volumes of his Dictionary of Gujjar folklore. The first volume (paperback edition) is from Alif to Seen and the second volume is from sheen to ye)

In his preface to fist volume Mr Rahi says that he was handicapped for there was no such dictionary to emulate from. There is no such dictionary in Dogri or Kashmiri either, which are the main languages of this state. Therefore he had to consult a few books of such nature as the Punjabi Folklore Encyclopaedia.
Since Gujjars, who have been a nomadic tribe over centuries are getting permanently settled in colonies and places, a collection of their folklore becomes all the more important and essential for them. This job has been performed by Mr Rahi as he did in publishing an Encyclopaedia on Himalayan Gujjars earlier. At this tender age Javed Rahi has published about a dozen books, all on Gujjars and thus he is the only writer who has given so much useful literature to his community. Future historians may record him as one of the pillars of Gujjar renaissance in India.

He has decorated his book with various photographs of Gujjars and Bakerwals which add to its documentation value. However the photographs are faint and should have been clear in such a book of permanent value in Gujajr life and literature.

There is an addenda of 35 pages of Gujjar proverbs and popular sayings under the heading Chunam Gojra akhan te Bujharat which is also an invaluable addition to Gujjar literature on folklore, customs and beliefs.

He has given the names and related information on various amulets, superstitions (e.g. howling of jackals) etc prevalent in Gujjars all over the subcontinent. He explains certain words which have a historical background. For example he says “Ajad” word is  used for the Gujjars who live in Hazara and Swat and records the brief folk-tale attached to it.

Similary he explains the tale related to “Tajo” and its historical background. This word is related to Uri where a valiant Gujjar youth, named Taj Din alias Tajo, who was born between 1930-40, rebelled (like Baba Jitto), against the high handedness of the local kings and was poisoned to death by them. A song called “Tajo’ written in his praise is very popular among Gujjars. Thus the author has tried to record the Gujjar folklore in his new book. It may be recalled that the late Sham Lal Pardesi, had written a book on the folk songs of Kashmir which is a great contribution and addition to Kashmiri literature and language.

In his comments on the first volume of the Dictionary, Prof. Zahur ud Din of Jammu University says that such works are highly appreciated in the literary world. Such works help in preserving the world culture and civilization. From the study of folklore one looks  back and understands what one has lost and what one has achieved over the centuries which have receded into background but which have been the building blocks of a civilization and a distant culture.

It is a onerous task to collect all the idioms, proverbs and    word formations of a community, which has a great past but little record whch to add to the scholars’ difficulty which has been a nomadic one.

The Gujjars do not belong to Islam alone. They belong to all countries and religions and Javed Rahi has recorded all shades of beliefs in his small dictionary, which will grow into a big volume in future with more and more collections and additional information. Where there is no such dictionary in Kashmiri, Dogri or Pahari, it is praiseworthy that a young man, Javed Rahi, does it all alone.

Where Dr Zahoor ud Din wants the author to improve upon the present attempt by adding pronunciation to every word, idiom or phrase; to provide pictures or sketches where possible for easy comprehension and gender description of words, he praises the attempt of this youthful writer who is also a Research scholar in the Urdu Department of Jammu University.

Mohd. Yousuf Teng, in  his impressions about the Dictionary under review, says that eight hundred years earlier Hazrt Amir Khusro had included Gojri language in the major languages of India of his times. He also says that some philologists believe that Gojri is one of the source languages of Urdu. In 20th century the first dictionary of this language was published which augurs well for its future in 21st century and the centuries to follow.

There is possibility of improvement in the Dictionary as Mr. Teng observes. He also praises the attempt of this young man, Javed Rahi, who has trode in the land where angels of other lingual communities would fear to tread. The Dictionary in two volumes, has been provided financial assistance by the Department of Culture Ministry of Tourism and Culture under the schemes of “Financial Assistance for preservation and development of Tribal culture and Folk Arts,”

Javed Rahi, who is Secretary Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation, Jammu, dedicates the first volume to him (or her!) whose enmity, ‘which benefited him more than the help of a thousand friends.’ Javd Rahi has received Best Book Award of 1999 and Best Playright award in 1998. He has written four Gojri Drama serials for the Kashir channel of Doordarshan. To sum up, Javed Rahi seems to be a real son of the muses, whose pen showers incessant nectar over the Gujjar literature.

(End)

 

R.K.Bharati,

Senior Journalist

1-Gypsy House, Jawahar Nagar, Talab Tillo, Jammu-180 002

 

(The writer teaches Journalism and Translation to M.A. Urdu Professional classes in Jammu University these days)

GUJJAR IDENTITY AND POLITICS -by. Dr. Javaid Rahi

March 7, 2019

GUJJAR IDENTITY AND POLITICS

By. Dr. Javaid Rahi

In the Himalayan regions, Gujjar is considered an important and historical tribe .This tribe has ruled over many princely states in northern India for hundred of years and left their imprints in the Himalayan ranges and inscribed them in such a way that they could not be destroyed even after thousand of years. The legacy of Gujjars is as old as their identity. Famous scholar Mohammed Yusuf Teing writes about Gujjars in his research thesis: ‘Gujjar Shinakhat Ka Safar’ as; “At some point of time, Gujjar was an educated, prosperous and dignified community. Their reference is not restricted to the books of Indian , Persian , Arabic and Chinese historian but are talked of as to belonging from Gurjistan to Central India

To trace the origin of Gujjar we have to interpret the word “Gujjar”. Till now the word Gujjar has been interpreted in a number of ways. First perspective has been forwarded by Prof. Abdul Gani Shashi after detailed study of Arabic and Persian history. According to him, Gujjars share with Baduo tribe of Arab, a common lifestyle, way of living and culture. It is believed that Gujjars along with Badu tribe are associated Khizir tribe, who left for Koh-e kaf during the era of Christ along with their, camels and other domestic animals. According to him, the word Khizir got changed to Garz to Garzar and with the passage of time this tribe came to be called as Gujjar.

Abdul Malik Chouhan in the book Taarekh-e-Shahan Gujjar at page number 49 has described the word Gujjar in a diffrent way . I

In Islamic encyclopaedia .’ It has been said that why Gujjar community was spirited and courageous and they were known for their shrewdness i.e. despotism in the vicinity of Iran and had destroyed many empires and nations under their reign, that is why they were symbolised first of all by a wolf (Bhediya)locakly known as Gurj.Hence, this word get transformed from Gurj to Gurjur to Gurez and later on these people were called by the name of Gurj or Gujjar or Gurjar. Scholars of twentieth century have evolved the third perspective according to which thousands of years ago this community moved from a place called Georgia i.e. Georgia/Gurjistan to India via Afghanistan. Hence, because of belonging to Gurjistan, they were called as Gujjar. Anthropological surveys of India have authenticated this perspective .

Thefrourth perspective is that the History of Gujjars and Hindu manuscripts reveal that Gujjars were one of the communities who were devotee of lord Krishna. Gujjars took lord Krishna as their ideal and adopted their life style. For a long time they were known for preservation of cows and it is because of cows that some of the castes of Hindus were known as those owning cows. Similarly, Gaochar were called as Gaujar who later on become Gujjar. Another perspective is of Chowdhary Fayez Ahmed written in ‘Marat Gujjran Tareekh’ who consulted several scholars for verification. According to him, when Gujjars used to rule in India, their armies used to fight with Gurz i.e. Gada (weapon of lord Hanuman) which was their symbol, which later become Gurzar and then changed to Gurjar or Gujjar. It is in this context that Gujjar tribe came to be known. One more perspective also linked with Gurz. History reveals that these people considered cow as their protector and loved cow as their mother. Hence the weapon with which they used to fight was shaped as the head of cow, because of which people of other countries called them ‘Gau-sar’ which later on become Gujjar.

It has been said that Alexander (1) son who adopted the title of ‘Gausar’ which later on become Gurji and their children came to be called as Gujjar. But this perspective has not been verified by any other scholar. There are about half a dozen other Gujjar Histories written on Gujjars amongst which like Shahan-e-Gujjar, Gujjar Itihas, Gujjar aur Gujri Zaban, Tareekh-e-Gujran, Gujjar Tareekh aur Sakafat . It has been written in all these that the word Gujjar has been derived from Persian word ‘Gauzar’ which means body builder (pehalwan) or fighter. Because this community was famous for its moves and tactics in wars, that is why people called them Gauzor who later came to be called as Gujjars. This community is also called Gadjeen. There is a book of Hafiz Abdul Haq Sialkoti titled Tareekh-e-Gojran that verified this view.

Their is this view also that because of some issues, one community shifted from Grozni area of Russia and entered India after going through various ways. These people were called as Gurozar as they belonged to Grozni who later on become Gujjar. This view is authenticated by the presence of some castes in Gujjars based on the names of regions in Russia. E.g. Chichi Gujjars from Chechnya, Bajran Gujjar from Bajrania. The historical view related to Gujjars is very interesting. When Roman invaded Greece for the first time, the community which countered them was Gracia, located on the borders of Greece. Romans called them Grexie, Greece, Gruj which later on become Gurjar which eventually came to be called as Gujjar.

Colonel Tort argues that Gujjars are not descendants of Turkey or Arab. He links them to a huge empire. In “Rajasthan History” Col. Tort states that Gujjars are Greek and the World Gujjar or Garjar is of Greek origin. Page number 39 of Tareekh-e-Kokaz writes that Gujjars have come from Turkistan, and they are descendants of Noah. They are of the view that the word Gujjar is derived from ‘Garji’ who was descendant of Noah. Shri R.D Bhandari believes that Gujjar is an important community amongst the various Himalayan communities. History tells us that these nomadic people used to rule North India at some time. Gujjar entered India in fifth century A.D. along with Huns, and they are one of the communities of Central Asia. According to English scholar Kennedy, Gujjars used to worship Sun so they entered India from Iran. In a book titled ‘Harsh Chitra’ written in seventh century A.D., is written that king Harshavardan who was a Hun was given the title of ‘Garjar Praja Graha’ which mean that brave Gujjar who used to protect his community. Famous scholar Kanigam says that Gujjars are present in India even before Christ. Mr. V.A Smith is amongst those scholars who believe that Gujjars are locals. Rana Ali Hussan Chouhan writes in his history that the word Gujjar is derived from the word Gurjar or Garjar, which has been used by maharishi Valmiki in Ramayana. E.g. in Valmiki’s Ramayana, there is written, “Gato Dashrat swargyo gartaro” – which means king Dashrat who was brave amongst us kshatriyas, departed for heaven. A big chunk of scholars, agree that Gujjars actually have come from Georgia, which is located in Russia and is often called as Gurjistan. Till date whatever has been said or told about Gujjars cannot be verified logically till date. However, all scholars agree that this community had arrived in the Indian horizon in fifth to sixth century A.D. Expert anthropologist Dr. Cornik has said that through research it has been found that there is no major difference between the faces of Gujjars with that of ancient Indian communities. Gujjars have ruled over Gujarat, Bhopal, Kannauj, Ajmer etc. from fifth century to Fourteenth century A.D. Rajtarangni reveals that Gujjars used to rule over the states and surrounding areas of Kashmir Valley. History tells that with the decline of Gupt kingdom Gujjars started to arise. But they were limited to till North India. With reference to history of Rajasthan, it has been revealed that Gujjars had been the residents of J&K since third century A.D. to fifth century A.D. However, some scholars are of the view that Gujjars entered J&K in tenth or eleventh century.

Kashmiri Scholar Motilal Saqi has written in his thesis ‘Gujjar Pratihaar’ as, “Harishchandra and his three generations had ruled in between 550 A.D -640 A.D. After that kings of royal family had ruled till eight generations. Thus, North India was under the control of Gujjars for 300 years.” Great scholar Dr. Jamil Jalbi of Pakistan has written in his book ‘Urdu Adab ki Tareekh’ at page 79 in his first edition in this way, “One form of Urdu language is found in Gujarat which is called as Gojri or Gujarat dialect. History tells us that Gujjar community entered India as conquerors and divided its southern occupied areas into three parts: the biggest was called as Maharath, second as Gujrath and the third as Swarath. The conquerors from Turkey found it difficult to pronounce Gujrath so they modified it to Gujarat.”

One usually finds the proofs of presence and rule of Gujjars in Kashmir form the external aggressions. According to history, Mohd. Gaznavi attacked Kashmir twice but he failed both the times and many kingdoms came up in Kashmir from 1038 A.D to 1326 A.D. Tung Rai Gujjar was the commander in chief opposite Mohd. Gaznavi. This was the period when king Tarlochan Pal Khattana sought refuge to J&K. Sarvari Kasana writes in his essay, ‘Jammu Kashmir par Gujjron ki Hakumat’ about acceptance of Islam by Gujjars as, “in 1301, King Ranjan appointed Shah Mir Gujjar as his minister, who had already adopted Islam. Shah Mir sat on the throne of Kashmir as Wazir Shamsudin. The proof of his being a Gujjar can be traced in chapter Kashmir of‘Ain-e-Akbari’.There is also written that Shah Mir considered himself as descendants of Pandavas. Four sons of Shah Shamsudin were rulers of Kashmir. One of them had ruled over Lohar Kot which is now known by the name of Loren in district Poonch. K.D Maini in ‘Tareekh Poonch” writes in eighteenth century that Poonch was ruled over by Sango Gujjar who was a brave king.

History tells us that Gujjars have ruled from Gujarat, Jodhpur, and Kathiawad to Baliya 641 century A.D. and during this time it was known as Gujjar Desh. Chawada and Solanki Gujjars have ruled over Deccan Gujarat from 610 A.D -942 A.D, while Gujjars ruled over here from 700 A.D-1573A.D. Central Institute of Indian language, Mysore have prepared a Grammar, in which is written that Gujjar left the plain areas after their decline and shifted to Himalayan regions. These people used to attack enemies while remaining hidden in hilly areas, but this trend could not last long and slowly they became the inhabitants of these areas. Many kings in J&K had enlisted Gujjars as criminal tribes, so that they can snatch power from them to prevent them from being autonomous. Different kings used to keep an eye over Gujjars who were there in their army. History tells us that in every period, each kingdom called rajputs and Sikhs and other Marshall communities from Punjab and settled them around Gujjar inhabited colonies, to protect themselves from attacks of Gujjars which they used to carry from hills to plain areas. Even today in whole of J&K where ever Gujjar colonies are located one can find some houses of Sikhs and Muslim Rajputs which verifies the policies of earlier kingdoms. During Dogra period and Sikh period, landed estates and sub divisions went to people, while Gujjars got only meadows. During Dogra rule Gujjars were not participative and they could not reach or acquire a high position in their administration in proportion to their population. As a result, the views of Dogra Rajput rulers were also not different from earlier rulers. However, later on, three to four Gujjars got access to the King’s council.

To remove backwardness of Gujjars and to bring awareness in them, Gujjar-Jat Conference was established in 1931. This conference went to different places in J&K and awakened Gujjars socially, politically and culturally and directed them towards education. Gujjar leaders of state established this conference. In 1947 thousands of Gujjars were massacred in Jammu and surrounding areas and those who escaped went to Pakistan but major part of Gujjars from Poonch, Rajouri and Kashmir didn’t shifted and resided over here only. After partition every group got exposed to awareness but Gujjars remained negligent and ignorant. They were neither in power, nor was there anyone to talk about them.

After patation the decade of 1970s saw a new turn when the state government allotted special budget of Rs. 13 crores for the development and progress of Gujjars under which a Gujjar consultation board was set up. This board’s suggestion led to the establishment of Gujjar hostels and Gujjar kanuniyan to bring about political and educational awareness among Gujjars. Government of India gave the status of S. T to Gujjars on 19 April 1991 and it is only after that, that their real development has been possible. At the political level, Gujjars still are not that aware, but their inclination towards education is flourishing. But still they have to carry a long war to acquire seats for them in state legislature. In a nutshell, we can say that Gujjars are emerging as a distinct cultural, political and social identity as a whole. They have to go through numerous paths and reach upto many destinations. ( The Author is working in State Academy of Art, Culture and Language Jammu as Editor-cum-Cultural Officer)

1500 YEARS of GUJJAR IDENTITY AND POLITICS

By. Dr. Javaid Rahi

In the Himalayan regions, Gujjar is considered an important and historical tribe .This tribe has ruled over many princely states in northern India for hundred of years and left their imprints in the Himalayan ranges and inscribed them in such a way that they could not be destroyed even after thousand of years. The legacy of Gujjars is as old as their identity. Famous scholar Mohammed Yusuf Teing writes about Gujjars in his research thesis: ‘Gujjar Shinakhat Ka Safar’ as; “At some point of time, Gujjar was an educated, prosperous and dignified community. Their reference is not restricted to the books of Indian , Persian , Arabic and Chinese historian but are talked of as to belonging from Gurjistan to Central India

To trace the origin of Gujjar we have to interpret the word “Gujjar”. Till now the word Gujjar has been interpreted in a number of ways. First perspective has been forwarded by Prof. Abdul Gani Shashi after detailed study of Arabic and Persian history. According to him, Gujjars share with Baduo tribe of Arab, a common lifestyle, way of living and culture. It is believed that Gujjars along with Badu tribe are associated Khizir tribe, who left for Koh-e kaf during the era of Christ along with their, camels and other domestic animals. According to him, the word Khizir got changed to Garz to Garzar and with the passage of time this tribe came to be called as Gujjar.

Abdul Malik Chouhan in the book Taarekh-e-Shahan Gujjar at page number 49 has described the word Gujjar in a diffrent way . I

In Islamic encyclopaedia .’ It has been said that why Gujjar community was spirited and courageous and they were known for their shrewdness i.e. despotism in the vicinity of Iran and had destroyed many empires and nations under their reign, that is why they were symbolised first of all by a wolf (Bhediya)locakly known as Gurj.Hence, this word get transformed from Gurj to Gurjur to Gurez and later on these people were called by the name of Gurj or Gujjar or Gurjar. Scholars of twentieth century have evolved the third perspective according to which thousands of years ago this community moved from a place called Georgia i.e. Georgia/Gurjistan to India via Afghanistan. Hence, because of belonging to Gurjistan, they were called as Gujjar. Anthropological surveys of India have authenticated this perspective .

Thefrourth perspective is that the History of Gujjars and Hindu manuscripts reveal that Gujjars were one of the communities who were devotee of lord Krishna. Gujjars took lord Krishna as their ideal and adopted their life style. For a long time they were known for preservation of cows and it is because of cows that some of the castes of Hindus were known as those owning cows. Similarly, Gaochar were called as Gaujar who later on become Gujjar. Another perspective is of Chowdhary Fayez Ahmed written in ‘Marat Gujjran Tareekh’ who consulted several scholars for verification. According to him, when Gujjars used to rule in India, their armies used to fight with Gurz i.e. Gada (weapon of lord Hanuman) which was their symbol, which later become Gurzar and then changed to Gurjar or Gujjar. It is in this context that Gujjar tribe came to be known. One more perspective also linked with Gurz. History reveals that these people considered cow as their protector and loved cow as their mother. Hence the weapon with which they used to fight was shaped as the head of cow, because of which people of other countries called them ‘Gau-sar’ which later on become Gujjar.

It has been said that Alexander (1) son who adopted the title of ‘Gausar’ which later on become Gurji and their children came to be called as Gujjar. But this perspective has not been verified by any other scholar. There are about half a dozen other Gujjar Histories written on Gujjars amongst which like Shahan-e-Gujjar, Gujjar Itihas, Gujjar aur Gujri Zaban, Tareekh-e-Gujran, Gujjar Tareekh aur Sakafat . It has been written in all these that the word Gujjar has been derived from Persian word ‘Gauzar’ which means body builder (pehalwan) or fighter. Because this community was famous for its moves and tactics in wars, that is why people called them Gauzor who later came to be called as Gujjars. This community is also called Gadjeen. There is a book of Hafiz Abdul Haq Sialkoti titled Tareekh-e-Gojran that verified this view.

Their is this view also that because of some issues, one community shifted from Grozni area of Russia and entered India after going through various ways. These people were called as Gurozar as they belonged to Grozni who later on become Gujjar. This view is authenticated by the presence of some castes in Gujjars based on the names of regions in Russia. E.g. Chichi Gujjars from Chechnya, Bajran Gujjar from Bajrania. The historical view related to Gujjars is very interesting. When Roman invaded Greece for the first time, the community which countered them was Gracia, located on the borders of Greece. Romans called them Grexie, Greece, Gruj which later on become Gurjar which eventually came to be called as Gujjar.

Colonel Tort argues that Gujjars are not descendants of Turkey or Arab. He links them to a huge empire. In “Rajasthan History” Col. Tort states that Gujjars are Greek and the World Gujjar or Garjar is of Greek origin. Page number 39 of Tareekh-e-Kokaz writes that Gujjars have come from Turkistan, and they are descendants of Noah. They are of the view that the word Gujjar is derived from ‘Garji’ who was descendant of Noah. Shri R.D Bhandari believes that Gujjar is an important community amongst the various Himalayan communities. History tells us that these nomadic people used to rule North India at some time. Gujjar entered India in fifth century A.D. along with Huns, and they are one of the communities of Central Asia. According to English scholar Kennedy, Gujjars used to worship Sun so they entered India from Iran. In a book titled ‘Harsh Chitra’ written in seventh century A.D., is written that king Harshavardan who was a Hun was given the title of ‘Garjar Praja Graha’ which mean that brave Gujjar who used to protect his community. Famous scholar Kanigam says that Gujjars are present in India even before Christ. Mr. V.A Smith is amongst those scholars who believe that Gujjars are locals. Rana Ali Hussan Chouhan writes in his history that the word Gujjar is derived from the word Gurjar or Garjar, which has been used by maharishi Valmiki in Ramayana. E.g. in Valmiki’s Ramayana, there is written, “Gato Dashrat swargyo gartaro” – which means king Dashrat who was brave amongst us kshatriyas, departed for heaven. A big chunk of scholars, agree that Gujjars actually have come from Georgia, which is located in Russia and is often called as Gurjistan. Till date whatever has been said or told about Gujjars cannot be verified logically till date. However, all scholars agree that this community had arrived in the Indian horizon in fifth to sixth century A.D. Expert anthropologist Dr. Cornik has said that through research it has been found that there is no major difference between the faces of Gujjars with that of ancient Indian communities. Gujjars have ruled over Gujarat, Bhopal, Kannauj, Ajmer etc. from fifth century to Fourteenth century A.D. Rajtarangni reveals that Gujjars used to rule over the states and surrounding areas of Kashmir Valley. History tells that with the decline of Gupt kingdom Gujjars started to arise. But they were limited to till North India. With reference to history of Rajasthan, it has been revealed that Gujjars had been the residents of J&K since third century A.D. to fifth century A.D. However, some scholars are of the view that Gujjars entered J&K in tenth or eleventh century.

Kashmiri Scholar Motilal Saqi has written in his thesis ‘Gujjar Pratihaar’ as, “Harishchandra and his three generations had ruled in between 550 A.D -640 A.D. After that kings of royal family had ruled till eight generations. Thus, North India was under the control of Gujjars for 300 years.” Great scholar Dr. Jamil Jalbi of Pakistan has written in his book ‘Urdu Adab ki Tareekh’ at page 79 in his first edition in this way, “One form of Urdu language is found in Gujarat which is called as Gojri or Gujarat dialect. History tells us that Gujjar community entered India as conquerors and divided its southern occupied areas into three parts: the biggest was called as Maharath, second as Gujrath and the third as Swarath. The conquerors from Turkey found it difficult to pronounce Gujrath so they modified it to Gujarat.”

One usually finds the proofs of presence and rule of Gujjars in Kashmir form the external aggressions. According to history, Mohd. Gaznavi attacked Kashmir twice but he failed both the times and many kingdoms came up in Kashmir from 1038 A.D to 1326 A.D. Tung Rai Gujjar was the commander in chief opposite Mohd. Gaznavi. This was the period when king Tarlochan Pal Khattana sought refuge to J&K. Sarvari Kasana writes in his essay, ‘Jammu Kashmir par Gujjron ki Hakumat’ about acceptance of Islam by Gujjars as, “in 1301, King Ranjan appointed Shah Mir Gujjar as his minister, who had already adopted Islam. Shah Mir sat on the throne of Kashmir as Wazir Shamsudin. The proof of his being a Gujjar can be traced in chapter Kashmir of‘Ain-e-Akbari’.There is also written that Shah Mir considered himself as descendants of Pandavas. Four sons of Shah Shamsudin were rulers of Kashmir. One of them had ruled over Lohar Kot which is now known by the name of Loren in district Poonch. K.D Maini in ‘Tareekh Poonch” writes in eighteenth century that Poonch was ruled over by Sango Gujjar who was a brave king.

History tells us that Gujjars have ruled from Gujarat, Jodhpur, and Kathiawad to Baliya 641 century A.D. and during this time it was known as Gujjar Desh. Chawada and Solanki Gujjars have ruled over Deccan Gujarat from 610 A.D -942 A.D, while Gujjars ruled over here from 700 A.D-1573A.D. Central Institute of Indian language, Mysore have prepared a Grammar, in which is written that Gujjar left the plain areas after their decline and shifted to Himalayan regions. These people used to attack enemies while remaining hidden in hilly areas, but this trend could not last long and slowly they became the inhabitants of these areas. Many kings in J&K had enlisted Gujjars as criminal tribes, so that they can snatch power from them to prevent them from being autonomous. Different kings used to keep an eye over Gujjars who were there in their army. History tells us that in every period, each kingdom called rajputs and Sikhs and other Marshall communities from Punjab and settled them around Gujjar inhabited colonies, to protect themselves from attacks of Gujjars which they used to carry from hills to plain areas. Even today in whole of J&K where ever Gujjar colonies are located one can find some houses of Sikhs and Muslim Rajputs which verifies the policies of earlier kingdoms. During Dogra period and Sikh period, landed estates and sub divisions went to people, while Gujjars got only meadows. During Dogra rule Gujjars were not participative and they could not reach or acquire a high position in their administration in proportion to their population. As a result, the views of Dogra Rajput rulers were also not different from earlier rulers. However, later on, three to four Gujjars got access to the King’s council.

To remove backwardness of Gujjars and to bring awareness in them, Gujjar-Jat Conference was established in 1931. This conference went to different places in J&K and awakened Gujjars socially, politically and culturally and directed them towards education. Gujjar leaders of state established this conference. In 1947 thousands of Gujjars were massacred in Jammu and surrounding areas and those who escaped went to Pakistan but major part of Gujjars from Poonch, Rajouri and Kashmir didn’t shifted and resided over here only. After partition every group got exposed to awareness but Gujjars remained negligent and ignorant. They were neither in power, nor was there anyone to talk about them.

After patation the decade of 1970s saw a new turn when the state government allotted special budget of Rs. 13 crores for the development and progress of Gujjars under which a Gujjar consultation board was set up. This board’s suggestion led to the establishment of Gujjar hostels and Gujjar kanuniyan to bring about political and educational awareness among Gujjars. Government of India gave the status of S. T to Gujjars on 19 April 1991 and it is only after that, that their real development has been possible. At the political level, Gujjars still are not that aware, but their inclination towards education is flourishing. But still they have to carry a long war to acquire seats for them in state legislature. In a nutshell, we can say that Gujjars are emerging as a distinct cultural, political and social identity as a whole. They have to go through numerous paths and reach upto many destinations. ( The Author is working in State Academy of Art, Culture and Language Jammu as Editor-cum-Cultural Officer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recommendation of Sachar Committee  and Muslim Gujjars of J&K By. Dr. Javaid Rahi

March 7, 2019

Recommendation of Sachar Committee  and Nomad Gujjars

By. Dr. Javaid Rahi

 The Government   of India has set up various commissions from time to time for identification of various weaker communities so that data and other necessary information could be collected in respect of their educational, social, economic and political status and on the basis of such datas and resultant recommendations, such downtrodden communities could be provided avenues for development and progress. A few of such commissions which have played vital and historical role include   Gajendragadkar Commission, the Sikri Commission, the Wazir Commission (1969), the Anand Commission (1976) and the Mandal Commission which covered the entire country.

            In a landmark decision, Prime Minister Office issued a notification on March 9, 2005 in order to access the Educational, Economic and Social status of Muslims in India, thereunder setting up a high power committee with the aim and objective to recommend the measures for upliftment of economic, educational and social conditions of Muslims. Justice Rajandhar Sachchar was to head this prestigious committee whileas 6 other members are include Saiyid Hamid, Dr.T.K.Oommen, M.A.Basith, Dr.Rakesh Basant, Dr.Akhtar Majeed and Dr.Abusaleh Shariff   , Member-Secretary. The committee, after marathons efforts and going into details submitted its report to Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh in One Year, Nine Months and Eleven Days, This report is being discussed in Parliament these days and has raised many eyebrows among the political circles of India.

            The report compiled on the Social, Educational and Economic Status of  Muslim of the state is first of its kind in which certain matters have been discussed in open. This is also important because it has been recommended in the report to create a data bank on the name of Muslims also  so that the latest information and datas with regard to Muslims and other religiouse groups  are collected, there and this will help in formulating future policies for Muslims at Naitonal and local levels.

            The Muslims of India, in general have welcomed this report, saying that at last the government has realized the problems and the grievances of Muslims. But at the same time have declared it that it has left out many important issues including the “Rehabilitation”   of “Nomad Muslims”  in India, especially the Nomadic Gujjars living in the Himalayan Belt of Northern India, and other dozens of tribes,   living in pathetic condition in India.   Recently the Muslim Gujjars of J&K and other States , which constitute a substantial population of Nomads , appealed to Prime Minister of India, Dr Manmohan Singh to intervene and  incorporate necessary amendments on SACHER COMMITTEE REPORT to include the problems and difficulties being faced by Nomadic Muslims Tribes of India , as this important sector has been left unaddressed and unattended.

            They appealed that the Sachar Committee Reports mainly  focused its attention only on the issues of “settled Muslim”  including  to OBC’s, BPL ,MBC, other lower casts,   and  ignored the Muslim nomadic Tribes of India including Scheduled Tribe Gujjars of J&K and Himachal Pardesh. , which needs to be  amended.

It  is surprising that the Sachar Committee Report comprising of over 404 Pages does not incorporate even the word or    term of ” Nomadic Muslims”or “Muslim Tribes”    therefore no such step has been suggested  in its recommendations for their “Rehabilitation”  and other upliftment, as their problems are totally different and worst then the other settled Muslim Communities of India. The report is also   silent about the  legitimate rights, Mobile System of Education, Right of Franchise for Nomad Muslims, recognition tribal system of Justice popular in Muslim Tribals and   the Socio Economic safeguard    to lakhs of Nomadic tribes in Muslim Community including  Gujjar Muslims wandering in Himalayan belt of Northern India.

                        The Gujjars which constitute  the largest “tribe”  among   Muslims in India , and are living in a very pathetic condition , for centuries together  in all the Northren  states but the Sachar Committee Report is silent about them.. while the page 225 article 6.2 mentions Schedule Tribes  of Lakshwadeep islands which are only sixty thousand  in number and the rest Muslim tribes which are in millions   have totally being neglected.

The Nomadic Gujjars are pursuing for amendments in Sachar Committee Report when it has been released for public in New Delhi, Their representative have deliberations with the members of Sachar Committee at Jammu and appraised them of the factual position demands and suggestions but this important aspect has totally been left unaddressed.

The committee which has submitted it report regarding the all the  Setteld Muslims in India include the recommendations at 2 levels: –

One, General Policy Initiatives that cut across different aspects of socioeconomic and  educational development; Two, Specific Policy Measures that deal with particular issues and/or dimensions :-

 

  • Create a National Data Bank (NDB) (for Muslims also) where all pertinent data pertaining to the socio-economic and educational status of different Socio-Religious Communities (SRCs)    is maintained. Such data should be computerized and made available on the internet. (Pg. 238).
  • Set up an autonomous Assessment and Monitoring Authority (AMA) to evaluate the extent of development benefits which accrue to different Social Religious Communities through various programmes. (Pg. 239).
  • Address the widespread perception of discrimination among the Muslim community. Undertake research on the basis of the NDB to examine if discrimination exists. (Pg. 239).
  • Make legal provisions to eliminate instances of discrimination established through studies.(Pg. 239).
  • Challenge violations of the constitutional rights of minorities (guaranteed under the provisions the Fundamental Rights clauses and the special provisions for protecting the rights of minorities in respect of their religion, language and culture) in the courts. (Pg. 239).
  • Set up an Equal Opportunity Commission (EOC) to look into grievances about denial of equal opportunity or bias or discrimination by the deprived groups. An example of such a policy tool is the UK Race Relations Act, 1976. Existing institutions such as the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) and the National Commission for Minorities (NCM) can at best play a limited role in dealing with many complaints arising on a day-to-day basis against non-State agencies. (Pg. 240).
  • Because of the logic of numbers in a democratic polity, based on the one-man-one-vote principle, minorities in India often lack effective agency and political importance. A carefully conceived ‘nomination’ procedure should be worked out to increase the effective participation of minorities in local governance. (Pg. 239).
  • End the existing system of delimitation of constituencies whereby areas with Muslim concentration are declared as reserved constituencies for SCs. This effectively disempowers Muslims. Evolve a more rational procedure for delimitation of constituencies. (Pg. 241).
  • Incentives for shared spaces: There is urgent need for a variety of initiatives to encourage and reward diversity in living, educational and work spaces. While religious diversity couldbe one core factor, in the field of education and employment, gender should also be afactor. (Pg. 242).
  • Evolve a ‘Diversity Index’ and link government incentives to greater diversity through:

—     Incentives in the form of larger grants to those educational institutions that have higher diversity and are able to sustain it. These incentives can apply to both colleges and universities, both in the public and the private sector.

—     Incentives to private sector to encourage diversity in the work force. While such initiatives should be part of the corporate social responsibility, some affirmative action may help initiate this process.

—     Incentives to builders for housing complexes that have more ‘diverse’  

      resident populations to promote ‘composite living spaces’ of    SRCs.   

      Encourage the building of parks,

—     libraries and even study spaces in mixed localities and across neighborhoods so that children belonging to different SRCs can interact and at the same time pursue studies. These can be used by the community or civil society to organize remedial classes, reading rooms and other

constructive initiatives. (Pg. 242). Sensitise state officials and other functionaries about the need to respect and sustain diversity in the development and implementation of programmes or in the provision of services, and the problems associated with social exclusion. (Pg. 243).

  1. Free and compulsory education for Muslims up to the age of 14 is the responsibility of the State. And the fulfillment of this obligation is critical for the improvements in the educational conditions of Muslims, in fact, of all socio-economically deprived children. (Pg. 243).
  2. Remove bias from school textbooks: A process of evaluating the content of the school text books needs to be initiated to purge them of explicit and implicit content that may impart inappropriate social values, especially religious intolerance. (Pg. 244).
  3. Establish common study rooms: It is absolutely necessary to create local

community study centres in poor localities for students so that they can spend a few hours to concentrate on their studies. This is an area in which the government, NGOs

and the corporate sector can co-operate. (Pg. 244).

  1. Set up High Quality Government Schools in all areas of Muslim concentration. (Pg. 244).
  2. Set up Exclusive Schools for Girls should, particularly for the 9-12 standards… Appoint more women teachers in co-education schools. (Pg. 244).
  3. Availability of primary education in one’s mother tongue is constitutionally . Provide primary education in Urdu in areas where Urdu speaking population is concentrated. (Pg. 244).
  4. Technical Education and Training for Non-matriculates:
  5. The pre-entry qualification for admission to ITIs should be reduced to Class VIII. The scope of ITI courses should be expanded to focus on emerging market needs including those of the retail sector. (Pg. 245).
  6. Skill development initiatives of ITIs and polytechnics should focus on sectors which have high growth potential and in which the Muslim population is concentrated. These training initiatives should also focus on areas where the minority population concentrated. (Pg. 245).

iii. The eligibility for such programmes should also be extended to the Madarsa educated children,as they are ineligible to get trained under many current formal technical education streams. (pg.245).

  1. i) Long term strategy: The best long term measure to correct this deficit is to increase school completion rates among the Muslims. (Pg. 245).

Medium and short term strategy: i. The University Grants Commission (UGC) should evolve a system of rewarding with additional funds schools with a diverse student population. This principle   should also apply to minority institutions. To ensure that minority institutions remain accessible to  the poor from within the community, UGC should reward encourage schools with low fees and merit-cum-means scholarships (partly funded from the additional UGC grants). (Pg. 246).

  1. Evolve an alternate admission criteria to facilitate admissions to the ‘most backward’ amongst all the SRCs in the regular universities and autonomous colleges. The alternate criteria proposed is to allot 60% marks on merit, with the remaining 40% for backwardness (house-hold income, 13%,backward district, 13%, backward class, 14%) .(Pg. 246).

: Providing hostel facilities at reasonable costs for students from minorities must be taken up on a priority basis. While this is required for all minority students, such facilities for girls in cities of all sizes are particularly desirable. The taluka headquarters and educational centers would be the best locations for such facilities. Another possibility is to create boarding houses for backward SRCs in taluka headquarters. (Pg. 246).

  1. Teacher training should compulsorily include in its curriculum components which introduce the importance of diversity/ plurality within the country and sensitize teachers towards the needs and aspirations of Muslims and other marginalized communities. The implementation of this should be monitored by the National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE). (Pg. 247).
  2. Given the current education levels, the possibility of more Muslims opting for B.Ed course is limited. But more Muslims may be able to participate as para-teachers. An effort should be made to enhance participation of Muslims in this cadre as an interim measure. (Pg. 247).

— Often Urdu schools have teachers who have no knowledge of Urdu. This problem is partly compounded by the fact that posts of Urdu teachers are reserved for the SCs/STs and such   candidates are not available. This anomaly needs to be corrected urgently. (Pg. 247).

— High quality Urdu medium schools can be opened in those parts of the country wherever there is demand for them. Ensure that good quality text books are available in Urdu language and the products of these schools are employable.

— Urdu should be introduced as an optional subject in all government and government-aided schools in states having a substantial Urdu speaking population. (Pg. 247).

— Work out mechanisms whereby Madarsas can be linked with a higher secondary school board so that students wanting to shift to a regular/mainstream education can do so after having passed from a Madarsa. (Pg. 248).

— Provision of “equivalence” to Madarsa certificates/degrees for subsequent admissions into institutions of higher level of education. (Pg. 248).

— Recognition of the degrees from Madarsas for eligibility in competitive examinations such as the Civil Services, Banks, Defense Services and other such examinations. This should, however, remain within the existing framework of these competitive examinations. (Pg. 248).

— Review and revamp the scheme before expanding the programme of modernization of

Madarsas. (Pg. 248)

Lack of access to credit is a particularly serious problem for Muslims as a significantly larger proportion of workers are engaged in self-employment, especially home-based work. Therefore, non-availability of credit can have far-reaching implications for the socio-economic and educational status of the Community.

  1. Information regarding the religious background of customers and clients should be maintained by the banks and made available to the RBI. RBI in turn can provide this information to others under the Right to Information Act. . (Pg. 249).
  2. Promote and enhance access to Muslims in Priority Sector Advances. Any shortfall in

achievement of targeted amount in minority specific programmes should be parked with NMDFC,NABARD and SIDBI and specific programmes should be funded with this amount. (Pg. 249).

  1. Give incentives to banks to open more branches in Muslim concentration areas.

The RBI’s periodic reports on Priority Sector Advances should also contain data on ‘Sanctions or Disbursements to Minorities’ in the reporting period, along with the ‘amount outstanding’. (Pg. 250).

  1. The Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) should set aside a fund for training for minorities under its Entrepreneurial Development Programme. Such programmes should not only aim to improve skills of artisans in traditional occupations but also reequip them with modern skills required to face the adverse effects of globalization in their area of artisanship. (Pg. 250).
  2. There is a widespread perception that the participation of Muslims in the Self Help Groups (SHGs) and other micro-credit programmes is very limited. National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development (NABARD) should lay down a policy to enhance the participation of minorities in its micro-credit schemes. (Pg. 250).
  3. Detailed analysis of Muslim participation in government employment and

other programmes has shown very limited participation in both. It is desirable to have experts drawn from the community on relevant interview panels and Boards. This practice is already in vogue in the case of SCs/STs. (Pg. 250).

  1. All 58 districts with more than 25 % Muslim population should be brought

under the Prime Minister’s 15-Point Programme for minorities welfare. A special assistance package for the development of these districts should be launched. The same principle might be applied to units taluka/block with similar concentration of Muslims. (Pg. 250).

  1. There should be transparency in information about minorities in all activities.

It should be made mandatory to publish/furnish information in a prescribed format once in three months and also to post the same on the website of the departments and state governments. (Pg. 250).

  1. The review of Government programmes suggests that Muslims have not benefited much from them. Detailed data should be collected regularly on the participation of different SRCs in government programmes, both at the state and the Central level. (Pg. 251).
  2. Though there are many Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) and Central Plan Schemes (CPS) available for the welfare of SCs, STs and OBCs, such schemes for the welfare of minorities are rare. And the available schemes are inadequately funded. Overall, targeting backward districts and clusters where special artisanal groups exist, will ensure a sharp reduction in disparities of access and attainment. (Pg. 251).
  3. Provide financial and other support to initiatives built around occupations where Muslims are concentrated and that have growth potential. These initiatives can take the form of interventions where existing skills of the workers are combined with knowledge of modern management practices, new technology, and emerging market needs. (Pg. 251).
  4. Locate ITIs, polytechnics and other institutions that provide skill training to non-matriculates in areas/clusters which have large concentrations of Muslim population. (Pg. 252).
  5. Given the precarious conditions of the self-employed persons in the informal sector, especially the home-based workers, it is desirable to have a mandated social security system for such workers. Casual workers in the informal sector should also be able to participate in such schemes.

(Pg. 252).

  1. A more transparent recruitment system will help to build public confidence in the system. It is not being suggested that inclusion of minorities in selection committees will improve the chances   that Muslims will get selected, it can surely improve the confidence of Muslim applicants during the selection process. (Pg. 252).
  2. It is imperative to increase the employment share of Muslims particularly in departments where there is a great deal of public dealing: the teachers, health workers, police personnel, bank employees etc. (Pg. 252).
  3. Encourage employers to endorse their organizations as ‘Equal Opportunity Institutions’ so that applicants from all SRCs may apply. A time bound effort in this direction is desirable. (Pg. 252).
  4. When Muslims appear for the prescribed tests and interviews their success rate is appreciable. This applies both to the public and private sector jobs. Introduce simple measures like undertaking a visible recruitment process in areas and districts with high percentage of Muslims, job advertisements in Urdu and vernacular newspapers and other media, or simple messages like ‘women, minority, and backward class candidates are encouraged to apply’ to help create an atmosphere of trust and confidence. (Pg. 252).
  5. Ensure at least one Muslim inspector/sub-inspector in the Muslim concentrated Thanas, Muslim health personnel in health units located in such areas, a few Muslim teachers in schools located in such areas and so on. (Pg. 253).

Enhance the Efficacy of Infrastructure Provision Encourage Community Initiatives

  1. Evolve a training programme for sensitization of the service staff regarding issues of social exclusion. (Pg. 253).
  2. Encourage the setting up of civil society organizations from amongst the Muslim community as well. However, the reach of such organizations is going to be very limited and the responsibility of the State in providing basic health and other infrastructure facilities remains the main hope of all poor, including Muslims. (Pg. 253).
  3. Lack of access to crucial infrastructural facilities is another matter of concern for the Muslims. Access to schools, health care, sanitation facilities, potable water and means of daily transportation are some of the basic facilities one can expect a state to provide for its citizens. This is in the overall interest of India and not only of Muslims alone. Not providing these basic facilities is a violation of human rights. (Pg. 253).

Partnerships between the government, the community and the private sector maybe quite useful to deal with problems faced by Muslims. Better utilization of Wakf properties can provide partnership opportunities. It is expected that the recommendations will receive the attention of the Central and the state governments and will be implemented with all the earnestness and the thoroughness that they deserve. The issues relating to disparities across socio-religious communities are of utmost importance to our nation today. (Pg. 254).

 

( Dr. Javaid Rahi is National Secretary of Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation – an organization working for the welfare of Indian Tribes and can be mailed at :- javaidrahi@gmail.com )